Pilot Study 6

Vulnerability assessment in Budapest and Veszprém

This pilot study analysed the biophysical, social and economic vulnerability of urban systems in two Hungarian municipalities. One specific goal was to demonstrate the applicability of adaptation measures and policies in the various administrative and governance contexts. Another goal focused on the integration of adaptation polices and measures in existing and future long-term development plans. Good practices and lessons learnt gathered from adaptation experience worldwide were carefully examined, and a list of feasible adaptation measures for the main urban economic sectors and/or ecosystems was compiled and offered to stakeholders for consideration.

Study area

The pilot study was carried out in two municipalities: the 13th district of Budapest and Veszprém. The 13th district of Budapest is one of the most intensively developing areas in the Hungarian capital, located alongside the river Danube. It is a densely built residential, business and commercial area, with a constantly increasing volume of traffic. As a result, the district’s economic and social life is currently vulnerable to the increased frequency and severity of extreme weather events generally associated with climate change. The most challenging characteristic of the district in terms of adaptation planning is the fact that the range of feasible adaptation measures is limited by the existing governance system. This requires optimising the application of soft adaptation measures, as well as close cooperation with higher-level authorities. Veszprém is a medium-sized city situated in the western part of Hungary, about 20 km north of Lake Balaton. Located in a hilly area, the city is strongly affected by extreme weather events such as heat waves and strong winds. Veszprém already has a strong mitigation policy, the hallmark of which is the Energy Strategy of Veszprém. The main challenge facing adaptation decision makers in this case is the coherent integration of adaptation considerations into already existing climate policies.


The focus was on conducting a vulnerability assessment of the pilot areas, including an exposure study and adaptive capacity analyses and resulting in an assessment of future impacts on current economic sectors and ecosystems. For each municipality, the assessment provided an overview of the geographical, meteorological, economic, political and governance contexts. Another important task was to analyse global urban adaptation experience. A significant number of settlements around the world, having already experienced the negative impacts of the changing climate, have planned and implemented adaptation measures and drawn lessons and conclusions. This accumulated experience was carefully studied and a number of adaptation measures were assessed for applicability in the context of the two pilot areas. The pilot study was implemented in close cooperation with stakeholders from the two municipalities.


Pilot Study 6 Report: Urban adaptation in two Hungarian municipalities


  • Assessing the Climate Vulnerability of Vital Urban Systems and Services in Veszprém (English / Hungarian)


  • Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Measures in the Public Health Sector in the City of Veszprém and Budapest’s District XIII (English / Hungarian)


  • Vulnerability to Climate Change – An analysis of urban systems in Budapest’s District XIII (English / Hungarian)